The suffering caused by hookworm is not well known in the developed world but in many countries it is all too prevalent. More than 700 million people are infected with hookworm. The largest number of cases occur in impoverished areas of Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, China and Latin America. Globally, approximately 3.2 billion people are at risk for hookworm infection.

With financial support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Brazilian Ministry of Health, the Sabin PDP is developing a vaccine against hookworm. A vaccine could provide a sustainable, effective means for controlling hookworm infection and protect the world’s poor from this harmful infection.


Timeline

October 2013
The HOOKVAC consortium begins work to further advance the development and testing of the human hookworm vaccine.

September 2013
Na-APR-1 began clinical testing in the United States. Initial data from this study will inform optimal formulations of this component of the vaccine for future trials.

October 2012
An IND application for the clinical development of Na-APR-1 hookworm vaccine is submitted.

June 2012
Clinical trial of Na-GST-1 begins at Children’s National Medical Center in Washington, DC, in healthy adults. The purpose of the trial is to determine the optimal vaccine formulation for future clinical testing.

January 2012
Phase 1 clinical trial of Na-GST-1 begins in Brazil in both hookworm unexposed and exposed healthy adults.

June 2011
cGMP manufacture of Na-APR-1 vaccine begins.

January 2011
An IND application for the clinical development of Na-GST-1 hookworm vaccine is submitted.

July 2010
A cGLP toxicology study of Na-GST-1 is conducted in laboratory animals.

November 2009
First pilot-scale cGMP lot of Na-GST-1 vaccine manufactured at Aeras.

June 2007
Phase 1 clinical trial of the Na-ASP-2 Hookworm Vaccine in a hookworm-endemic area of Brazil begins. The trial was discontinued after some trial volunteers developed an allergic reaction to the vaccine.

The Sabin PDP develops new criteria for the selection of helminth antigens for consideration as vaccine candidates. This includes skin testing and seroepidemiological assessments of antibody responding to helminth antigens in individuals from endemic areas.

May 2007
The Americaninhas Vaccine Center in Minas Gerais, Brazil is opened.

August 2006
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation awards a 4-year, $13.8 million grant to support the development of an adult hookworm vaccine candidate. Potential candidate antigens include Na-APR-1 and Na-GST-1.

April 2006
Site selection study for Phase 1 clinical trial of Na-ASP-2 Hookworm Vaccine in Brazil is completed.

January 2006
cGMP manufacture of three new clinical lots of Na-ASP-2 Hookworm Vaccine in the United States is completed.

May 2005
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation awards a 5-year, $21.8 million grant to support clinical development and evaluation of the Na-ASP-2 Hookworm Vaccine. Technology transfer of manufacturing and quality control processes commence with the aim of eventual industrial scale production of the vaccine in Brazil.

April 2005
Phase 1 clinical trial of the Na-ASP-2 Hookworm Vaccine initiated in the United States.

December 2004
An Investigational New Drug Application (IND) is submitted to the U.S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the clinical development of the Na-ASP-2 Hookworm Vaccine.

April 2003
Na-ASP-2, a larval hookworm protein, is selected as the first candidate vaccine antigen.

cGMP manufacture of the Na-ASP-2 Hookworm Vaccine in the United States.

January 2000
Sabin Vaccine Development program launches the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative (HHVI).

Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation awards a 5-year, $18 million grant for the development of a human hookworm vaccine. The grant supported the identification, cloning, expression and preclinical testing of the candidate hookworm vaccine antigen, Na-ASP-2. In particular, it supported process development, manufacture and quality control to obtain regulatory approval for beginning clinical testing of the Na-ASP-2 Hookworm Vaccine.