Country Overview

  • Financing mechanism under conceptualization
  • Resource tracking in high demand
  • Legislative review under conceptualization

Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI)
The Ethiopian EPI is in the Ministry of Health (MOH).

Government Spending on Immunization
Over the period 2006-2013, Ethiopia’s Gross National Income increased from US$180 to US$470 per capita, a 128 percent increase. According to the WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form (JRF), the Ethiopian government spent $6 on routine immunization per surviving infant in 2006, increasing to $17 the following year. By 2012, this figure had fallen to $2, reflecting an 88 percent decrease. In addition, the government share of total routine immunization expenditures dropped from 12 percent to 8 percent from 2009-2012. Caveats: Reporting for JRF Indicator 6500 is incomplete and there are inconsistencies across the JRF financial indicators. The data do not suggest that Ethiopia has progressed towards country ownership of its immunization program. 

Click to download Ethiopia's 2006-2013 Reported Government Expenditures on Routine Immunization updated 09/2014

Vaccination Financing MechanismIn 2014, the MOH’s Financial Resource Mobilization Directorate explored the advantages of an immunization financing mechanism supported by a $0.50 donation from air travelers and/or a 10-15 percent tax increase on trucks. Private firms are already receiving tax exemptions for such donations.

Tracking Expenditure Flows
As of 2014, the MOH is eager to develop a strategy to regularly monitor budget disbursement as the State Minister of Health plans to increase the EPI budget along with the expected rise in the country’s GNI.

Legislation for Sustainability
Excerpts from the Ethiopian Constitution:

  • Chapter III, Article 41 (Economic, Social and Cultural Rights) of the Ethiopian Constitution states:
  • “The State has the obligation to allocate ever increasing resources to provide to the public health, education and other social services.”
  • Chapter V, Article 51 (Powers and functions of the federal government) states: “It shall establish and implement national standards and basic policy criteria for public health.”
  • Chapter X, Article 90 (social objectives) states: “To the extent the country’s resources permit, policies shall aim to provide all Ethiopians access to public health and education, clean water, housing, food and social security.”
  • Book VIII, Chapter VI, Article 831 (Control of toxic substances and drugs) establishes the government’s right to control Toxic Substances and Drugs13.

The new MOH Ten-Year Plan is under development, which emphasizes preventive health services, including immunizations. A byproduct of this effort: the MOH is conceptualizing a desk review spanning all existing laws related to immunization and immunization financing.

SIF Program Activities

  • October 2014: Senior Program Officer conducts a field visit to the State Minister of Health (Operations). They jointly identified several areas for collaboration.
  • April 2011: Senior Program Officer interviews six peer exchangers from the Addis Ababa colloquium.
  • March 2010: Senior Program Officer attends the AMMRIRA health resource mobilization workshop hosted by the WHO on resource mobilization for Ethiopia’s measles elimination campaign in Addis Ababa.
  • October 2009: Senior Program Officer and Program Director organize first parliamentary briefing in Addis Ababa.
  • September 2009: Program Director confers with Ethiopian parliamentarians during an African Parliamentary Union conference on health financing, held in Addis Ababa.
  • July 2009: Sabin Executive Vice President and Program Officer meet with the First Lady and parliamentarians in Addis Ababa.
  • September 2008: Senior Program Officer and Program Director hold introductory visits with Ministry of Health and GAVI partner agency counterparts.