- Public immunization fund is established. Vaccine procurement fund is under discussion.
- Two laws are under development which address immunization financing.
- Domestic advocacy network is under development.
Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI)
The Kenyan EPI is in the Immunization Division, Department of Family Health, Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation (MOPHS).
Government Spending on Immunization
Over the period 2006-2013, Kenya’s Gross National Income increased from US$570 to US$930 per capita, a 160 percent increase. According to the WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form (JRF), the Kenyan government spent $4 on routine immunization per surviving infant in 2006. Government contributions fluctuated over the period but remained $4 per surviving infant in 2013. The government share of total routine immunization expenditures, however, rose from 10 percent to 15 percent from 2006-2013. Caveats: Reporting for JRF Indicator 6500 is incomplete and there are inconsistencies across the other JRF financial indicators. The data suggest that Kenya has not progressed towards country ownership of its immunization program.
Vaccination Financing Mechanism
In 2010, the Health Sector Services Fund began disbursing recurrent cost funds directly to communal facilities, dispensaries and health centers. The Health Facility Management Committees manage the Fund, in which immunization is covered. Provincial and district health management teams provide oversight and district-level accountants report how the funds are used.
During an external immunization financing study in October 2014, Kenyan government officials committed to insert a provision into the draft vaccine procurement bill establishing a vaccine procurement trust fund.
Legislation for Sustainability
In 2011, the National Assembly Health Committee began drafting a bill covering vaccines and vaccination activities. In its 2012 session, parliament considered five major health bills. In January 2012, following the approval of the new constitution, the MOPHS initiated a mapping of all immunization-related legislation in Kenya. Parliamentary SIF champions appointed Kenco (Kenya AIDs NGOs Consortium) to lead this initiative in September 2013. Following a working session in February 2014, the parliamentary law drafters inserted provisions from the Latin American and Caribbean Model Law into the draft law.
By October 2014, two draft immunization-related bills existed: a vaccine procurement bill, which introduces a vaccine procurement trust fund, and the general health bill, which includes a section on vaccinations. The MOHPS and Parliament are presently taking measures to accelerate passage of the vaccine procurement bill and then the general health bill.
Domestic Advocacy Network
Since March 2014, the Kenyan Parliamentary Network for Immunization has been under development.
Major SIF Program Efforts
- September 2014: Senior Program Officer attends a WHO-led immunization financing study
- September 2014: SPO holds a briefing with the EPI and the Parliamentary Health Committee Committee on vaccine procurement difficulties.
- June 2012: Ugandan Parliament and Senior Program Officer co-organize a legislative workshop in which peer exchangers from the Kenyan parliament and MOH participated.
- February 2012: Senior Program Officer and Program Director attend the third Kenyan parliamentary briefing.
- March 2011: Senior Program Officer holds the second parliamentary briefing on sustainable immunization financing.
- September 2010: Senior Program Officer holds first SIF parliamentary briefing, in which representatives from the Kenyan Pediatric Society and Health Committee MPs participated.
- April 2009: Senior Program Officer delivers an address at the Kenya Pediatric Association’s 2009 Annual Scientific Conference.
- October 2008/January 2009: Program Director and Senior Program Officer hold introductory meetings with Kenyan immunization stakeholders including Ministry of Health, World Bank, UNICEF and WHO.