- Draft immunization law under development, immunization sub-decree being conceptualized
- Improved resource tracking practice being conceptualized
National Immunization Program (NIP)
The Cambodian NIP is in the Health Directorate, Ministry of Health (MOH).
Government Spending on Immunization
Over the period 2006-2013, Cambodia’s Gross National Income increased from US$510 to US$950 per capita, an 86 percent increase. According to the WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form (JRF), the Cambodian government spent $4 on routine immunization per surviving infant in 2006. By 2013, this figure had risen to $6, reflecting a 48 percent increase. The government share of total routine immunization expenditures increased from 17 percent to 25 percent from 2006-2013. Caveats: Reporting for JRF Indicator 6500 and the other JRF financial indicators is complete but inconsistent. The data nevertheless suggest that Cambodia has progressed towards country ownership of its immunization program.
Tracking Expenditure Flows
As of July 2014, the MOEF Budget Department is conceptualizing a performance-based immunization budgeting initiative. In this approach, program managers will cross-analyze programmatic information and expenditures to make their activity plans more realistic. The MOEF is presently working with other ministries to receive more punctual and detailed performance reports.
Legislation for Sustainability
Chapter VI, Article 72 of Cambodia’s 1993 constitution states: “(1) The health of the people is to be guaranteed. The State gives full consideration to disease prevention and medical treatment. Poor citizens receive free medical consultation in public hospitals, infirmaries, and maternities“.
The MOH Law Drafting Committee was established in February 2012. In October, MOH Deputy Director-General of Health appointed the MOH Legal Department Officer to lead the Committee, which held consultative meetings with Members of Parliament (MPs) as well as representatives from the National Immunization Program (NIP), MOH, and Ministry of Economy and Finance (MOEF) in October 2012 and March 2013.
During a legislative workshop in May 2013, the law drafters used provisions from Latin American, Caribbean, African, and Asian law provisions, as well as working group recommendations, to construct a outline for the law. The drafters used the outline to improve the law the following December.
In January 2014, the Health Minister established a new Legislative Working Committee to drive the drafting process. The NIP provided feedback on the second draft in April, and Cambodian government officials provided input on the law’s declarative, financial and operational criteria during a workshop in July. The input was incorporated soon thereafter.
In September 2014, the MOH began mobilizing officials to draft a sub-decree on immunization. Still, MPs from the National Assembly remain focused on finalizing the draft law, per the workshop recommendations.
Major SIF Program Efforts
- July 2014: Senior Program Officers from Nepal and Mongolia co-organize Asia Peer Review Workshop on Sustainable Immunization Financing. Peer exchangers from Nepal, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Mongolia, Indonesia, and Vietnam participate.
- October 2013: Senior Program Officer and Program Director organize multi-institutional briefing on the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP).
- May 2013: Senior Program Officer organizes legislative workshop with NIP, MOH, MOEF, and provincial EPI officials.
- May 2013: Senior Program Officer organizes multi-institutional briefing.
- October 2012: Senior Program Officer organizes peer exchange between Nepal and Cambodia on immunization financing strategies and legislation.
- July 2012: Senior Program Officer and the Cambodian National Assembly co-organize the Fourth Asian Sub-regional Symposium and Second Sub-national Parliamentary Briefing in Cambodia. Attending were MPs and government officials from Sri Lanka, Nepal and Cambodia.
- April 2012: Senior Program Officer and Program Director organize a parliamentary briefing with the Commissions of the National Assembly on Public Health, Social Affairs, Veterans, Youth Rehabilitation, Vocational Training and Women’s Affairs.
- March 2012: Peer exchangers participate in SIF-organized Symposium for Parliamentarians and Elected Members of Local Government Bodies on Sustainable Immunization Financing. Also in attendance are government peers from Sri Lanka and Nepal.
- February 2012: Senior Program Officer participates in National Assembly-organized parliamentary briefing. Also in attendance are Health Committee members, other MPs and ministerial officials.
- February 2012: Senior Program Officer conducts an introductory briefing with Rotary-Cambodia.
- August 2011: Senior Program Officer participates in the Thirty-Second ASEAN Inter-Parliamentary Assembly (AIPA) in Cambodia.
- March 2011: Senior Program Officer co-organized Asian Inter-Parliamentary Assembly Seminar on “Accelerating the Achievement of MDG-5 through the Role of Women Parliamentarians”.
- February 2011: Senior Program Officer organizes Cambodia's first provincial-level briefing on immunization financing. Participants include 20 MPs and counterparts from Ministry of Health and Ministry of Finance and Economy (MOEF).
- October 2010: Senior Program Officer and the Cambodian government co-organize the Third Sub-Regional Symposium for Parliamentarians on Sustainable Immunization Financing.
- July 2010: Five peer exchangers participate in the SIF-organized Second Sub-regional Symposium for Parliamentarians on Sustainable Immunization Financing in Sri Lanka.
- June 2010: Senior Program Officer, Rotary-Nepal, and UNICEF co-organize Countdown to 2015 and Sustainable Immunization Financing: Role of Civil Society Organizations, in which two peer exchangers participated.
- April 2010: Senior Program Officer and the Cambodian National Assembly co-organize a Maternal and Child Health and Sustainable Immunization Financing conference in Cambodia.
- February 2010: Six peer exchangers participate in a SIF/UNICEF-organized Sub-regional Parliamentary Briefing on Sustainable Immunization Financing.
- December 2008: Senior Program Officer and Program Director conduct introductory briefings with MOH and MOEF officials.