Country Overview

  • Immunization legislation passed
  • Immunization fund institutionalized
  • Advocacy network under development
  • Subnational resource tracking under development

National Immunization Program (NIP)
The Mongolia NIP is located in the Ministry of Health (MOH).

Government Spending on Immunization
Over the period 2006-2013, Mongolia’s Gross National Income increased from US$1,120 to US$3,770 per capita, a 237 percent increase. According to the WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form (JRF), the Mongolian government spent less than $1 on routine immunization per surviving infant in 2006. By 2013, this figure had risen to $41. In addition, the government share of total routine immunization expenditures increased from 29 percent to 95 percent from 2006-2013. Caveats: Reporting for JRF Indicator 6500 is complete but there are inconsistencies across the other JRF financial indicators. The data nonetheless suggest that Mongolia has progressed towards country ownership of its immunization program.

Click to download Mongolia's 2006-2013 Reported Government Expenditures on Routine Immunization updated 09/2014

Legislation for Sustainability
The Constitution of Mongolia (1992) contains a number of provisions that affect the rights of children, but only four address children specifically:

Art. 17 provides for “a sacred duty for every citizen to work, protect his/her health, bring up and educate his/her children and to protect nature and the environment”.

The Mongolian Constitution guarantees certain rights and freedoms, including “the right to the protection of health and health care. The procedure and conditions of free medical aid shall be defined by law.” The wording of the constitutional provision is important. In many countries, the constitutional provision declares an open right to free health services, but the Mongolian Constitution does not. It recognizes instead that the right to free health care should be fulfilled by the state, the guarantor of the right, according to the availability of resources. Thus, legislation has to determine from time to time what health services should be free and to whom.

The Government passed the Law on Immunization in April 2000. The law regulates activities for the “prevention of the Mongolia population from and immunization against infectious diseases.” An Immunization Fund has been established under this law to mobilize and manage funds for immunization from various sources. This law was amended in 2010.

Vaccination Financing Mechanism
The Government adopted the Government Resolution 67 in March 2001, which approved regulations for establishing the Immunization Fund and its operations. The Fund was established as an independent legal entity, governed by a Fund Council. The fund manages the finances for non-routine and emergency vaccines and handles transportation of routine and non-routine vaccines to local centers.

Domestic Advocacy Network
The Federal Tax Department signed a Memorandum of Understanding in November 2013, by which it would disseminate immunization financing figures and tax revenue data to the Mongolian population.

In May and November 2014, the Tax Department in coordination with the National Department of Communicable Diseases (NCCD) encouraged Hovd and Humnogobi district authorities from health and financial departments to mobilize local resources for immunization. There are 21 administrative districts in Mongolia.

Tracking Expenditure Flows
The NCCD and Tax Department also urged the district authorities to track expenditures on immunization separately from gross health spending.

Major SIF Program Efforts

  • November 2014: Senior Program Officer, NCCD, and Federal Tax Department organize sub-national briefing to Umnogobi district. The peers briefed the provincial authorities on resource tracking.
  • October 2014: Senior Program Officer and State Grand Khural (legislature) co-organize legislative & financial peer exchange between Uganda, Mongolia and Vietnam.
  • July 2014: Senior Program Officers from Nepal and Mongolia co-organize Asia Peer Review Workshop on Sustainable Immunization Financing. Peer exchangers from Nepal, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Mongolia, Indonesia and Vietnam participate.
  • June 2014: Senior Program Officer participates in the National Conference for a Measles-Free Mongolia.
  • May 2014: Senior Program Officer, NCCD, and Federal Tax Department co-organize sub-national briefing to Hovd district.
  • November 2013: Senior Program Officer and Federal Tax Department representative sign Memorandum of Understanding to jointly disseminate information on immunization financing for public consumption.
  • November 2013: Senior Program Officer co-organizes peer exchange between Vietnam (host country), Mongolia, and Indonesia.
  • January 2013: Senior Program Officer organizes parliamentary briefing that numbers sixty participants from parliament, MOH, and MOF.
  • June 2012: Senior Program Officer and Program Director conduct introductory briefings with government counterparts.