The health law, which guarantees public immunization financing, has been passed by parliament and approved by the president.
National Program on Immunization (NPI)
The NPI is located in the National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA), a parastatal institution.
Government Spending on Immunization
Over the period 2006-2013, Nigeria’s Gross National Income increased from US$840 to US$2,760 per capita, a 229 percent increase. According to the WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form (JRF), the Nigerian government spent $17 on routine immunization per surviving infant in 2006. By 2010, this figure had fallen to $4, reflecting a 76 percent decrease. While decreasing in absolute terms, the government share of total routine immunization expenditures rose from 87 percent to 89 percent from 2006-2010. Caveats: Reporting for JRF Indicator 6500 is incomplete and there are inconsistencies across the other JRF financial indicators. The data suggest that Nigeria has not progressed towards country ownership of its immunization program.
Vaccination Financing Mechanism
The Public Health Fund, subsidized by contributions from the federal and state governments, was established by the Health Law in February 2014.
As of November 2014, the NPHCDA, Pediatric Association of Nigeria, and other domestic partners are exploring public/private immunization financing mechanisms like TETFUND and PTDF to support the upcoming introduction of a PCV vaccine.
Tracking Expenditure Flows
The NPHCDA Health Economy team is working on the JRF questionnaire as of December 2013.
Legislation for Sustainability
Chapter I, Part 1, Article 17 of Nigeria’s 1999 Constitution states: “The State shall direct its policy towards ensuring that there are adequate medical and health facilities for all persons.”
The Fourth Schedule (“Functions of a Local Government Council”), Part 3, Article 2 of Nigeria’s 1999 Constitution states: “The functions of a local government council shall include participation of such council in the Government of a State as respects the following matters ‐…(c) the provision and maintenance of health services.”
Before December 2013, the Senate Health Committee inserted “vaccines” into the Public Health Fund budget line, thereby guaranteeing public vaccine financing once it was passed in February 2014 and approved in December 2014.
Domestic Advocacy Network
As of November 2014, the NPI manager is coordinating with SIF to develop a state-level advocacy strategy to guarantee smooth rollout of the vaccine component of the Health Law.
Major SIF Program Efforts
- November 2014: Senior Program Officer moderates the expert panel at World Pneumonia Day 2014: Sustaining Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV) Introduction in Nigeria.
- December 2013: Senior Program Officer and UNICEF representative conduct subnational bottleneck study in Nigeria.
- June 2012: Senior Program Officer and two Nigerian peer exchangers participate in the WHO/UNICEF/AMP/SIF Costing Workshop in Grand Bassam, Côte d’Ivoire.
- April 2012: Senior Program Officer and three peer exchangers from Liberia and Sierra Leone participate in the Nigeria Vaccine Summit.
- October 2010: Senior Program Officer and Program Director hold the first SIF parliamentary briefing.
- February 2009: Senior Program Officer and Program Director conduct introductory briefings with the MOH.