Nigeria is pursuing financial sustainability for its immunization services through a new financing arrangement, budget advocacy and legislation. The Sabin Sustainable Immunization Financing (SIF) Program began its efforts in Nigeria in February 2009.

Immunization Program Structure

The National Program on Immunization (NPI) is located in the National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA), a parastatal institution under the Federal Ministry of Health.

Nigeria’s Progress to Date

Government Spending on Immunization

Vaccination Financing Mechanism

Legislation for Sustainability

Budget Advocacy

SIF Program Inputs

Government Spending on Immunization

Over the period 2006-2014, Nigeria’s Gross National Income rose from US$840 to $2,970 per capita, a 254 percent increase. According to the WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form (JRF), the Nigerian government spent $17 on routine immunization per surviving infant in 2006. By 2014, this figure had fallen to $8, a 53 percent decrease. In addition, the government share of total routine immunization expenditures dropped from 87 percent to 24 percent over the same period. Since 2010, Nigeria has reported inconsistently on JRF financial indicators. The data suggest that Nigeria has not progressed towards country ownership of its immunization program. Among SIF countries, Nigeria ranked 13th in terms of routine immunization spending per surviving infant in 2014.

Nigeria’s JRF Financial Feedback Report, 2006-2014.

Vaccination Financing Mechanism

The Public Health Fund was established by the National Health Law in February 2014. The Fund is to be financed by contributions from federal and state revenues.

In 2015, the Nigerian National Immunization Financing Task Force (NIFT) was established. One of the NIFT’s main directives is to establish an external public-private partnership Immunization Financing Trust Fund (IFTF) to complement the Public Health Fund.

Legislation for Sustainability

Chapter I, Part 1, Article 17 of Nigeria’s 1999 Constitution states: "The State shall direct its policy towards ensuring that there are adequate medical and health facilities for all persons."

Parliament began drafting the National Health Bill in 2004. In 2013, the Senate Health Committee inserted a provision guaranteeing public vaccine financing. The Bill was passed by Congress in February 2014 and approved by the President in December 2014. 

Budget Advocacy

In 2015, NIFT began sensitizing domestic stakeholders and channeling advocacy messages on sustainable immunization financing through local and social media.

SIF Program Inputs

  • October 2015, April 2016: Nigerian counterparts join Kenyan, Ugandan, Liberian, and Sierra Leonean peers in Sabin-sponsored peer review workshops
  • December 2015: Sabin Senior Program Officer invited to attend National Roundtable on Local Vaccine Production and the National Immunization Financing Trust Fund
  • August 2015: Nigerian counterparts join Sierra Leonean and Liberian peers in Sabin-sponsored peer exchange workshop
  • October 2010: Sabin Senior Program Officer and SIF Program Director organize parliamentary briefing
  • February 2009: Sabin Senior Program Officer and SIF Program Director introduce SIF program to Nigerian government

Last Updated July 12, 2016