Nigeria is pursuing financial sustainability for its immunization services through a new financing arrangement, budget advocacy and legislation. The Sabin Sustainable Immunization Financing (SIF) Program began its efforts in Nigeria in February 2009.

Immunization Program Structure

The National Program on Immunization (NPI) is located in the National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA), a parastatal institution.

Nigeria’s Progress to Date

Government Spending on Immunization

Vaccination Financing Mechanism

Legislation for Sustainability

Budget Advocacy

SIF Program Inputs

Government Spending on Immunization

Over the period 2006-2014, Nigeria’s Gross National Income rose from US$840 to $2,970 per capita, a 254% increase. According to the WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form (JRF), the Nigerian government spent $17 on routine immunization per surviving infant in 2006. By 2014, this figure had fallen to $8, a 53% decrease. In addition, the government share of total routine immunization expenditures dropped from 87% to 24% over the same period. Since 2010, Nigeria has reported inconsistently on JRF financial indicators. The data suggest that Nigeria has not progressed towards country ownership of its immunization program. Among SIF countries, Nigeria ranked thirteenth in terms of routine immunization spending per surviving infant in 2014.

Nigeria’s JRF Financial Feedback Report, 2006-2014.

Vaccination Financing Mechanism

The Public Health Fund was established by the National Health Law in February 2014. The Fund is subsidized by contributions from the federal and state revenues.

In 2015, the Nigerian National Immunization Financing Task Force (NIFT) was established. One of the NIFT’s main directives is to establish an externally and publicly capitalized Immunization Financing Trust Fund (IFTF).

Legislation for Sustainability

Chapter I, Part 1, Article 17 of Nigeria’s 1999 Constitution states: "The State shall direct its policy towards ensuring that there are adequate medical and health facilities for all persons."

Parliament began drafting the National Health Bill in 2004. In 2013, the Senate Health Committee inserted “vaccines” into the Public Health Fund budget line of the Bill. The added provision guaranteed public vaccine financing once it was passed in February 2014 and approved in December 2014.

Budget Advocacy

The NPHCDA has advocated to the President of Nigeria for appropriate vaccine financing. In 2015 the NIFT has begun channeling its advocacy messaging through media outlets.

In its investment case, the NIFT emphasizes that (a) increasing current and new vaccines coverage by 90% will yield $17 billion in economic gains and that (b) raising DTP3/Penta3 coverage by 10% annually will avert productivity losses by $4 billion.

SIF Program Inputs

  • October 2015: Nigerian counterparts join Kenyan, Ugandan, Liberian, and Sierra Leonean peers in Sabin-sponsored peer review workshop
  • September 2015: Senior Program Officer introduces SIF program to the Nigerian National Immunization Financing Task Force
  • August 2015: Nigerian counterparts join Sierra Leonean and Liberian peers in Sabin-sponsored peer exchange workshop
  • August 2013: Nigerian counterparts attend Sabin-sponsored colloquium
  • March 2011: Nigerian counterparts attend Sabin-sponsored colloquium
  • October 2010: Senior Program Officer and Program Director organize parliamentary briefing
  • February 2009: Senior Program Officer and Program Director introduce SIF program to Nigerian government