Vietnam is pursuing financial sustainability for its immunization services through expenditure tracking and legislation. The Sabin Sustainable Immunization Financing (SIF) Program began efforts in Vietnam in October 2012.

Immunization Program Structure

Vietnam’s Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) is located in National Institute for Hygiene & Epidemiology (NIHE), Ministry of Health.

Vietnam’s Progress to Date

Government Spending on Immunization

Vaccination Financing Mechanism

Legislation for Sustainability

Expenditure Tracking

Budget Advocacy

SIF Program Inputs

Government Spending on Immunization

Over the period 2006-2014, Vietnam’s Gross National Income rose from US$760 to $1,890 per capita, a 149 percent increase. According to the WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form (JRF), the Vietnamese government spent $5 on routine immunization per surviving infant in 2006. By 2014, this figure had risen to $9, an 80 percent increase. While increasing in absolute terms, the government share of total routine immunization expenditures dropped from 65 percent to 44 percent over the period. Since 2010, Vietnam has reported consistently on JRF financial indicators. The data suggest that Vietnam has progressed towards country ownership of its immunization program. Among SIF countries, Vietnam ranked 11th in terms of routine immunization spending per surviving infant in 2014.

Vietnam's JRF Financial Feedback Report, 2006-2014.

Vaccination Financing Mechanism

Of 63 provinces, the number reporting any immunization spending with local revenues rose from 24 in 2012 to 38 in 2015. Subnational financing represents less than ten percent of total government immunization spending.

Legislation for Sustainability

The Constitution of Vietnam, Chapter III, article 39 states: “The state shall invest in, develop and exercise its unified management over health care activities for the people. It shall mobilize and organize all social forces to build and develop Vietnamese medicine, especially preventive medicine; combine disease prevention with medical treatment; develop and combine modern and traditional medicine and pharmaceutical practices; combine the development of state health care with folk medicine; offer health insurance; and create conditions for citizens’ access to medical care.”

Passed in 2007, the Law on Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases guarantees immunization financing. Clause 1, Article 30 states that “the State shall ensure funds for the use of vaccines and medical bio-products.”

The Ministry of Health and Ministry of Justice drafted a new immunization decree in 2015 with financing provisions complementing the 2008 Law on Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases.

Expenditure Tracking

SIF provides a tool for analyzing how efficiently recent immunization budgets have been executed. The EPI team performed annual SIF budget flow analyses for 2011-2015.

Prior to 2013, nearly half of Vietnam’s provincial immunization programs tracked expenditures. Since 2013, nearly all have been doing so.

In September-October 2015, a parliament and government team visited three provinces to survey the past year’s subnational expenditures. 

Budget Advocacy

In October 2015, parliamentarians used subnational resource tracking results to defend the FY2016 budget.

2014: Using budget flow results, Vietnamese counterparts averted a proposed cut, won an EPI budget increase.

During 2015-2016, parliamentarians and EPI team organized annual provincial-level stakeholder workshops to discuss immunization financing, share expenditure data.

Provincial governments increased their immunization spending 55 percent during 2012-2014. Central government EPI budget increased by 35 percent 2014-2015. 

SIF Program Inputs

  • July 2014, May 2016: Vietnamese counterparts join Mongolian, Indonesian, Nepalese, Sri Lankan, and Cambodian peers in Sabin-sponsored peer review workshops
  • October 2015: Sabin Senior Program Officer organizes Sabin-sponsored parliamentarian briefing
  • May 2013, May 2014, September, October 2015: Sabin Senior Program Officer joins Sabin-sponsored subnational immunization financing workshops
  • October 2014: Vietnamese counterparts survey Mongolia’s immunization law, fund in Sabin-sponsored study tour
  • November 2013: Vietnamese counterparts hosted Sabin-sponsored peer review workshop for Mongolian and Indonesian peers

Last Updated July 12, 2016