One-third of the world’s population is at risk of contracting typhoid, a systemic bacterial infection spread through contaminated food and water that kills an estimated 128,000 people each year, primarily children in low-income countries. Caused by the bacteria Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi), typhoid is an acute illness that is often misdiagnosed because its symptoms – prolonged fever, headache, nausea, constipation, loss of appetite and diarrhea – are so common.

Newly developed conjugate vaccines have the potential to dramatically reduce the burden of typhoid around the world. These new vaccines offer important advantages over prior vaccines, including longer duration of protection, the ability to protect younger children, and the potential for delivery with other vaccines in routine immunization of infants. A recent rise in multidrug-resistant typhoid and nontyphoidal Salmonella has increased the urgent need for more effective vaccines.

To speed the introduction of these life-saving vaccines, additional research and scientific collaboration is required.

Establishing Burden of Disease

Sabin is leading a large, landmark surveillance study to establish the burden of typhoid and paratyphoid in Bangladesh, India, Nepal and Pakistan. Data from the Surveillance for Enteric Fever in Asia Project (SEAP) will inform implementation of the new typhoid conjugate vaccine, as well as policy recommendations for typhoid and paratyphoid prevention and control. By conducting research to establish the burden of typhoid in Asia, Sabin provides countries with critical data to evaluate the potential benefits of vaccine introduction.

Promoting Collaboration

For the last 10 years, Sabin has provided a platform for stakeholders to guide typhoid vaccine policy and prepare for the introduction of new vaccines. Sabin’s Coalition against Typhoid hosts international conferences on typhoid and other invasive salmonelloses, convening scientists and researchers from around the world to present new research and promote collaboration. As typhoid conjugate vaccines are reviewed and introduced, Sabin will work with stakeholders to support advocacy efforts for uptake and implementation of expanded immunization programs.

Learn more: Coalition against Typhoid