Meet Nurunnahar. Like many school-aged children around the world, this Bangladeshi nine-year-old girl thought she would cool off from the heat of the summer with a glass of lemonade.

The International Conference on neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and rare diseases was held at the Vatican from November 10-12, 2016. A report from the meeting can be found online.

On November 10, Sabin Vaccine Institute President Dr. Peter Hotez will give the keynote address on NTDs at the Pontifical Council for Health Care Workers’ XXXI International Conference, focused this year on NTDs and rare diseases. The Pontifical Council for Health Care Workers was established by Pope John Paul II to help coordinate the Vatican’s health care related activities. Its work is rooted in the Church’s mission to care for the sick by dedicating its efforts to help health care workers and those serving the sick and suffering. The Pontifical Council for Health Care Workers’ XXXI International Conference will be one of its capstone events, as the Council will be assumed by the Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development on January 1, 2017.

Recent findings show that the host of micro-organisms living inside all of us – collectively known as the “microbiome” –play a wide range of roles in human health, from the development of allergies to risk of cardiovascular disease. Dr.

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