My name is Sarah Limbanazo Mwanamanga. I am 54 years old and a research nurse in Malawi, one of the poorest countries in Africa. I have experience working on numerous studies, and now I’m working on a typhoid study In Blantyre, Malawi. I would like to share my own story of typhoid. This story happened about 22 years ago when I was working as a nurse-midwife at Malamulo Hospital. I was 32 years old, married with four children and living with my family including my brother and husband, both of whom I lost due to typhoid.
Do you remember learning how to wash your hands as a child? An adult would have taught you how to run your hands under running water and lather with soap to remove germs. Did you realize then that this lesson might have saved your life?

Since the administration of the first vaccine, immunization policy has evolved to better meet public health needs around the world. This evolution is most apparent when considering immunization policy in developing countries over the past 50 years.

Typhoid is a disease that strikes the most vulnerable, and refugees are no exception. This autumn, flooding and rains have ushered in outbreaks of typhoid and other diseases in two refugee camps in South Sudan and North Darfur.

While much progress has been made globally in reaching the public with immunizations, one in five children across the world still do not have access to routine immunizations.

One year ago, tasked with the mission of uplifting societies around the world, the United Nations Development Program created a call to action known as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to fight poverty and promote sustainable peace and prosperity for all. These Global Goals, as they’re also known, identify targets for a variety of focus areas to be met by 2030. CaT recognizes that effective typhoid prevention and control, through vaccines and improved water and sanitation infrastructure, is a critical piece of these goals’ successes.
Meet Yadav. A 27-year-old lab assistant in Gurgaon, India, Yadav is remarkably conscientious about avoiding diseases transmitted through contaminated food and water. He cooks at home to avoid eating food bought on the street, where the risk of transmission is much higher. He drinks filtered water, and washes his hands with soap on a regular basis.
The abuse and misuse of antibiotics has led to the creation of bacterial strains that are resistant to standard medication, requiring more expensive and risky treatments for some diseases. Typhoid, a bacterial infection transmitted through contaminated food and water, is one of those diseases.
Every year from July to September across South Asia, the monsoon ushers in rain that boosts the growth of crops and powers the hydroelectric dams. While these annual rains help the economy, their torrential nature often hurts the health of vulnerable communities through dangerous flooding across the region.
Last month, the Sabin Vaccine Institute gathered 126 representatives from 17 countries for the Third Colloquium on Sustainable Immunization Financing. Members of Parliament, officials from Ministries of Health, Finance and other national and subnational ministries, and international partners joined to exchange ideas and experiences in developing innovative, long-term financing solutions for immunization.

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