Recipients of the Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal

2021 - Barney S. Graham, MD, PhD

Dr. Graham serves as deputy director of the NIAID Vaccine Research Center (VRC) and assists the director in establishing and focusing the scientific direction for the VRC as a premier research organization. As chief of the Viral Pathogenesis Laboratory, Dr. Graham also leads the development efforts for COVID-19 vaccines and universal influenza vaccines. In addition, he supports VRC product development through strategic advice on vaccine design as well as pre-clinical and clinical evaluation.

Dr. Graham is an immunologist, virologist and clinical trials physician whose primary interests are viral pathogenesis, immunity and vaccine development. His laboratory is focused on respiratory viral pathogens, pandemic preparedness and emerging viral diseases. His work applying structural biology, protein engineering and other new technologies has helped create vaccines for emerging threats while advancing precision vaccinology. When the SARS-Co V-2 sequence was first published, Dr. Graham’s team identified the relevant stabilizing mutations within hours, jump-starting the manufacturing of COVID-19 vaccines. He has been involved in the clinical evaluation of candidate vaccines for more than 30 years and has an ongoing interest in science education and expanding research opportunities for people underrepresented in scientific fields.

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2020 - Professor Gordon Dougan, F.Med.Sci., FRS
For his leadership across the full spectrum of vaccines and vaccinology

The Sabin Vaccine Institute awarded its 2020 Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal to Professor Gordon Dougan not for one accomplishment, but for a life-long commitment to innovating the development and delivery of vaccines, translating scientific   research into practical tools and encouraging the next generation of leaders in vaccinology.

Professor Dougan has been a key leader in the vaccine world for over three decades, making remarkable contributions to research and discovery through to clinical evaluation and advocacy. He has worked tirelessly to deliver affordable quality vaccines to those who most need them. Many vaccines and vaccine initiatives owe their success to his strategic vision, including the acellular pertussis vaccine and conjugate vaccines against typhoid fever and cholera.

At the Wellcome Foundation (now GSK), his team defined the protective antigen pertactin, now a key component of the acellular pertussis vaccine. As head of Pathogen Research at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Professor Dougan’s genomics research has transformed our understanding of pathogen evolution. His work on the epidemiology, antibiotic resistance and human challenge models of typhoid had significant impact on typhoid vaccine policy discussions at the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts.

He is currently a professor in the Department of Medicine at Cambridge University.

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2019 - Carol J. Baker, M.D.
For her contributions to the health of pregnant women and babies through groundbreaking research and advocacy

The Sabin Vaccine Institute awarded its 2019 Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal to Dr. Carol Baker, a highly accomplished infectious diseases clinician, teacher and vaccinologist.

Dr. Baker is known as “the Godmother of group B Streptococcus (GBS) prevention.” Recognized for her work at a time when many physicians were against vaccinating expectant mothers, Dr. Baker’s advocacy for maternal immunization shaped a new medical culture in the United States, enabling doctors to save the lives of countless newborn babies.

In 1976, Dr. Baker made the groundbreaking recognition of the correlation between neonatal and infant GBS disease and the lack of maternal antibodies to the GBS capsular polysaccharide, in addition to several revolutionary discoveries about GBS pathogenesis. Thanks to Dr. Baker’s revolutionary research and advocacy, routine screening and antibiotics have reduced early-onset neonatal GBS disease in the United States by more than 80 percent. Dr. Baker continues to work toward her ultimate goal of preventing this disease through immunization. Her research and tenacious advocacy have initiated the development of a vaccine, with candidates currently in clinical trials.

Dr. Baker serves as an adjunct professor of pediatrics at McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston.

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2018 - Paul Offit, M.D.
For his contributions as co-inventor of an oral rotavirus vaccine and his leadership as a dedicated advocate for immunization

The Sabin Vaccine Institute awarded its 2018 Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal to Dr. Paul Offit, a highly accomplished vaccinologist, pediatrician, author, historian and teacher. Dr. Offit performed early research on rotavirus, the second leading killer of children under five, alongside Dr. Fred Clark and Dr. Stanley Plotkin. This work led to the invention of RotaTeq®, a vaccine that prevents rotavirus diarrhea. In the United States alone, within a decade of the vaccine’s introduction, child hospitalizations from rotavirus dropped by 85 percent.

In 2000, after two decades of working in the laboratory, Dr. Offit established the Vaccine Education Center at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and became an increasingly vocal and visible champion of vaccines and immunizations. Dr. Offit makes science accessible to lay audiences through his numerous award-winning books.

Dr. Offit serves as the Maurice R. Hilleman Professor of Vaccinology and a Professor of Pediatrics at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, and Director of the Vaccine Education Center at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia.

This year marks the 25th anniversary of both the Sabin Vaccine Institute and the Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal.

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Dr. Jan Holmgren2017 - Jan Holmgren, M.D., Ph.D.
For his pioneering contributions to oral vaccine research and mucosal immunology, and his leadership in the discovery of the world's first effective oral cholera vaccine.

Dr. Jan Holmgren developed the world’s first effective oral cholera vaccine, and has continued to make significant contributions to the field through his pioneering research on oral vaccines and mucosal immunology.
In the 1980s and 90s, Dr. Holmgren and colleagues developed the Dukoral™ whole cell-B subunit oral cholera vaccine (OCV), which became the first internationally licensed and World Health Organization (WHO) prequalified OCV. They later shared the formula with researchers in Vietnam and India to facilitate a lower-cost version of the oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol™, which is now prequalified and stockpiled for international use by the WHO. Dr. Holmgren provided technical assistance to manufacturers in India, Vietnam and Korea to produce the vaccine at a much lower cost.
Dr. Holmgren is a professor of Medical Microbiology at the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden; he is also the founding director of the University of Gothenburg Vaccine Research Institute. Dr. Holmgren and his colleagues continue to research a truly affordable and practical single-formulation OCV for global use, as well as oral vaccines against ETEC diarrhea and H. pylori infection, adjuvants for mucosal vaccines, and novel immunotherapies against allergic and autoimmune diseases. Dr. Holmgren has published more than 600 papers in the fields of microbiology, immunology and vaccinology.

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Dr. George Siber2016 - George R. Siber, M.D.
For the development of life-saving vaccines for pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and meningococcus

The Sabin Vaccine Institute awarded the 2016 Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal to George R. Siber, M.D., chief scientific officer of ClearPath Vaccines Company, for his outstanding contributions to immunology and infectious disease research through the development of life-saving vaccines for childhood diseases, including pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and meningococcus. Dr. Siber is an infectious disease physician with more than three decades of experience developing innovative vaccines, therapeutic antibodies and diagnostic agents for infectious diseases. Throughout his career, Dr. Siber has led the development of products that have prevented countless cases of childhood diseases worldwide, and saved an untold number of lives.

Dr. Siber served as executive vice president and chief scientific officer of Wyeth Vaccines (now Pfizer) from 1996 to 2007. While at Wyeth, Dr. Siber was instrumental in the development and approval of multiple widely used childhood vaccines including Prevnar®, a pneumococcal vaccine which has dramatically reduced mortality globally. In the United States alone, Dr. Siber’s pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has reduced pneumococcus hospitalizations by an estimated 178,000 cases annually. In addition, Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, estimates that between 2011 and 2020, the vaccine will have prevented 1.5 million deaths in Gavi-supported countries.

Following the introduction of 7-valent Prevnar, Dr. Siber made critical observations which led to the addition of six key serotypes to subsequent Prevnar formulations to provide added protection for children and vulnerable adults. Dr. Siber’s portfolio at Wyeth also included Acel-Imune®, an acellular pertussis vaccine; Meningitec®, a meningococcal vaccine; Rotashield, an oral rotavirus vaccine; and FluMist, a nasal influenza vaccine.

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2015 - Roger I. Glass, M.D., Ph.D.
Champion for gastroenteritis prevention from rotaviruses and noroviruses

The Sabin Vaccine Institute awarded its 2015 Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal to Roger I. Glass on April 14, 2015 for his many contributions to improving children’s health worldwide, including novel scientific research for the prevention of gastroenteritis from rotaviruses and noroviruses. For more than three decades, Dr. Glass has pioneered research documenting the epidemiology and enormous burden of rotavirus throughout the world, and has worked to prevent this disease through the development and use of vaccines. Rotavirus vaccines, including several that he has helped to develop, are now in use in more than 70 national immunization programs. They have already had a major impact in reducing both deaths and diarrheal hospitalizations, thus improving the health of millions of children worldwide. 

Dr. Glass worked for more than 20 years in partnership with Drs. M.K. Bhan, Harry Greenberg, and Krishna Ella and others to develop a novel rotavirus vaccine for India that could be marketed to the public for US$1.00 per dose, a fraction of the cost of the existing vaccines. This vaccine was just licensed in India and publicly launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi. A similar effort has led to the development of a new vaccine now licensed in Vietnam.
Prior to his position as Director of the Fogarty International Center at the National Institutes of Health, Dr. Glass worked in various positions at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research in Bangladesh, Oxford University and the Sysin Institute in Moscow. In addition, he spent a year in the Global Program for Immunizations at the World Health Organization in 1995, where he developed a global strategy for surveillance of rotavirus hospitalizations that remains in place to this day.

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2014 - Mathuram Santosham, M.D., M.P.H.
Champion for H. influenzae type b (Hib) disease prevention

The Sabin Vaccine Institute awarded its 2014 Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal to Dr. Mathuram Santosham on April 29, 2014 for his pioneering role in the prevention of deadly H. influenzae type b (Hib) diseases, including pediatric bacterial meningitis and pneumonia. Dr. Santosham’s leadership in conducting groundbreaking research, vaccine efficacy trials and advocacy to prioritize Hib vaccines spans more than 40 years and has saved millions of children’s lives worldwide.

Dr. Santosham is the Founder and Director of the Johns Hopkins Center for American Indian Health. He holds Professorships in the Department of International Health and the Department of Pediatrics at Johns Hopkins University. He directed the Division of Health Systems for the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health from 1999-2009. 

Dr. Santosham is internationally known for his work on oral rehydration therapy, childhood vaccines and dissemination of key child survival interventions to vulnerable populations worldwide. Dr. Santosham worked with the White Mountain Apache Tribe and in several developing countries to pioneer the use of oral rehydration solution (ORS), now known as “Pedialyte” in the U.S. Based on this and other evidence, ORS has become the standard of care for treating diarrheal dehydration, and is credited with saving an estimated 60 million lives since 1980. 

Working in partnership with Native American communities, he conducted landmark vaccine efficacy trials, including rotavirus vaccine, H. influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine trials.

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2013 - Anne A. Gershon, M.D.
Champion for Childhood Disease Prevention

The Sabin Vaccine Institute awarded its 2013 Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal to Dr. Anne A. Gershon on April 23, 2013 for her outstanding research and public health efforts to combat the varicella zoster virus (VZV).   Dr. Gershon’s research was critical to the widespread adoption of the varicella vaccine, which prevents chickenpox.

Dr. Gershon is the director of the Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease and Professor of Pediatrics at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, a position she has held for the past 26 years. Her research, which included examining the epidemiology, diagnosis, immunology, latency, prevention and treatment of VZV, played a crucial role in the final steps of the vaccine’s licensure and broad public use.  Dr. Gershon continues to study the safety and efficacy of varicella vaccine, including the growth and pathogenesis of VZV in cell culture and latency of VZV in humans and animal models.

Chickenpox is a highly contagious, airborne infection that can be spread via contact with an infected person.  Before 1995, when the varicella vaccine came into widespread use in the United States, chickenpox affected about 95 percent of the population, leading to thousands of hospitalizations and about 100-150 deaths a year.  Ten years after the vaccine was recommended in the United States, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported as much as a 90 percent drop in chickenpox cases, a varicella-related hospital admission decline of 71 percent and a 97 percent drop in chickenpox deaths among those under 20.

This year marked the 20th anniversary of both the Sabin Vaccine Institute and the Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal.

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2012 - F. Marc LaForce, M.D.
Champion for Meningitis Elimination in Africa

The Sabin Vaccine Institute awarded its 2012 Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal to Dr. F. Marc LaForce on May 7, 2012 for his contributions to the development of a new vaccine for meningitis.

From 2001 to 2012, Dr. LaForce served as the Director of the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP), a partnership between PATH and the World Health Organization funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. As MVP director, Dr. LaForce oversaw the successful development, licensure, and widespread introduction of the first internationally licensed vaccine specifically designed for and introduced in Africa. It provides long-lasting protection against sub-Saharan Africa’s most important cause of epidemic meningitis, a disease that kills 10 percent of those sickened and leaves over 20 percent of survivors with severe and lifelong disabilities.

More than 55 million Africans between the ages of 1 and 29 years have been vaccinated since the vaccine’s introduction in 2010. It is expected to reach 320 million people in all 25 countries of Africa’s meningitis belt by 2016.

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2011 - Douglas R. Lowy, M.D. and John T. Schiller, Ph.D.
Pioneers in the development of vaccines intended to prevent cancer

Sabin Vaccine Institute awarded its 2011 Albert B. Sabin Gold Medal to Drs. Douglas R. Lowy and John T. Schiller on May 18, 2011 for their breakthrough research which led to the development of the first vaccines intended to prevent cancer. Drs. Lowy and Schiller made several watershed discoveries that advanced the development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV), the cause of virtually all cases of cervical cancer.

At the U.S. National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute, the two discovered that the major structural protein of papillomaviruses could self-assemble into non-infectious virus-like particles (VLPs), which had the ability to induce high levels of protective antibodies and could be produced by a method that was amenable to large-scale industrial production.

Lowy and Schiller also found that in the reference strain of HPV16— the strain that causes the most cases of cervical cancer — the protein self-assembled poorly. They then identified other isolates whose protein self-assembled efficiently and raised high levels of protective antibodies. Such discoveries ultimately resulted in the development of two commercial HPV vaccines.

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2010 - John D. Clemens, M.D.
Renowned Vaccine Diplomat

Dr. John Clemens has made numerous contributions to reducing suffering and promoting peace through the development, evaluation, and distribution of vaccines.

Dr. Clemens led the first efficacy trial of an oral vaccine against cholera, and conducted additional research on a measles vaccine as a research scientist at the International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh; during the 1980s. Scientists at the International Vaccine Institute (IVI) transferred the technology for the cholera vaccine to Shantha Biotechics of Hyderabad, India, and in 2009, Shanchol™ was licensed for development.

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2009 - Rino Rappuoli, Ph.D.
Discoverer of Reverse Vaccinology

Dr. Rappuoli's accomplishments are numerous, but what may be his most enduring and historic legacy is his use of "reverse vaccinology," or in silico vaccinology. This work has led to a protein-based vaccine against group B meningococci that is currently in Phase 3 clinical trials. More importantly, it represents a paradigm shift that could lead to new vaccines for several devastating diseases.

Dr. Rappuoli is currently the Global Head of Vaccines Research for Novartis Vaccines & Diagnostics, where he has helped to establish the Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health.

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2008 - Ruth S. Nussenzweig, M.D., Ph.D. (d. 2018)
Pioneer in Malaria Research

Ruth Nussenzweig, M.D., Ph.D. has been a world leader in epidemiology research for over 40 years. In 1967, Dr. Nussenzweig discovered that protective immunity against malaria can be induced by irradiating the parasite that causes malaria . This and subsequent discoveries such as Dr. Nussenzweig's identification of malaria's cloaking gene have paved the way for several malaria vaccines, at least three of which are currently in clinical trials. Dr. Nussenzweig has been on the faculty of New York University's School of Medicine since 1965 and has been a professor in the Department of Preventive Medicine since 1972. She has held vital positions in the school such as head of the Division of Parasitology as well as professor and chairperson of the Department of Medical and Molecular Parasitology. Currently she is the C.V. Starr Professor of Medical Parasitology and Pathology. Dr. Nussenzweig has served in the Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee of the World Health Organization and The Pew Foundation, among other groups. The author of more than 200 peer-reviewed publications, she also served on the editorial boards of several journals, including Parasitology Research and Zeitschrift fur Parasitenkunde.

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2007 - Hilary Koprowski, M.D. (d. 2013)
Giant of 20th century biomedical research

Dr. Koprowski's research is responsible for a variety of remarkable clinical advances in human and animal immunology and virology during his 50-year scientific career. Among Koprowski’s most notable achievements have been the development of a live oral poliomyelitis vaccine, which was the first such vaccine to be used in mass trials. Koprowski, along with his co-workers, also engineered a more effective and less painful rabies vaccine than the traditional Pasteur technique. In addition, Koprowski has been a pioneer in the development of monoclonal antibodies, which are used to detect cancer antigens and in cancer immunotherapy.

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2006 - William H. Foege, M.D., M.P.H.
Champion of child survival

William H. Foege an epidemiologist who worked in the successful campaign to eradicate smallpox in the 1970s. He has championed many issues, but child survival and development, injury prevention, population, preventive medicine, and public health leadership are of special interest, particularly in the developing world. He is a strong proponent of disease eradication and control, and has taken an active role in the eradication of Guinea worm, polio and measles, and the elimination of river blindness. By writing and lecturing extensively, Foege has succeeded in broadening public awareness of these issues and bringing them to the forefront of domestic and international health policies.

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2005 - Albert Z. Kapikian, M.D. (d. 2014)
Father of human gastroenteritis virus research

Albert Z. Kapikian is a physician, medical pioneer and viral diseases researcher, whose five-decade career has been marked by groundbreaking medical research contributions. He is distinguished as the developer of the first licensed rotavirus vaccine. He began studying the epidemiology and causes of various viral diseases in the 50s and used electron microscopy to discover and characterize viruses causing major diseases in humans. In 1972, he identified the Norwalk virus, gaining recognition as "the father of human gastroenteritis virus research." In 1973, he and two colleagues identified the virus that causes hepatitis A. At the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, he led a nearly 25-year effort to develop an oral rotavirus vaccine that in 1998 became the first rotavirus vaccine licensed in the United States.

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2004 - William S. Jordan, Jr., M.D. (d. 2008)
A name synonymous with vaccine research

For more than 60 years, Jordan has worked in the preventive medicine field as a practicing physician, dedicated teacher, and noted infectious disease researcher. He established an annual scientific review, known as the Jordan Report, considered by many in the field to be the most complete reference available on vaccine research and development. He advanced national and global disease prevention strategies as well as promotion of vaccine research, helping launch a program at the National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases that serves to accelerate vaccine focus needed attention and resources on new vaccines and vaccine improvements.

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2003 - Samuel L. Katz, M.D.
Conquering pediatric infectious diseases

Katz changed the face of children’s health forever by co-developing the measles vaccine now used worldwide. Perhaps no other vaccine besides the Sabin polio vaccine, has saved more lives. The measles vaccine is the foremost tool in the effort to rid the world of this otherwise common childhood disease. His dedication to pediatric infectious disease prevention is demonstrated further by his research on vaccinia, polio, rubella, influenza, pertussis, HIV and many diseases. Dr. Katz is the Wilburt Cornell Davison Professor and Emeritus of Pediatrics at Duke University. Currently, he co-chairs the Indo-US Vaccine Action Program and is a member of the Board of International Vaccine Institute in Seoul, Korea.

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2002 - Stanley A. Plotkin, M.D.
Breaking ground in rubella eradication

Stanley A. Plotkin, M.D., is medical and scientific advisor to sanofi pasteur, one of the world's largest vaccine companies. He is perhaps best known as the developer of the rubella vaccine that is the only one in use in the United States and throughout most of the world.

Dr. Plotkin joined sanofi pasteur in 1990. He retains the title of emeritus professor from his prior faculty membership at the University of Pennsylvania. There, he was professor of pediatrics and microbiology and professor at the Wistar Institute. He served concurrently as director of infectious disease and senior physician at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

Dr. Plotkin earned his medical degree from the State University of New York in 1956. In 1957, he investigated the last known outbreak of inhalation anthrax in the United States prior to the events of 2001, and helped demonstrate the efficacy of the current anthrax vaccine. This Sabin Gold Medal honoree is also known as the "Founding Father" of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. He has edited several books, including Vaccines, now the standard textbook in the field. Dr. Plotkin has also worked extensively on the development of other vaccines including polio, rabies, varicella, AIDS and cytomegalovirus.

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2001 - John B. Robbins, M.D. (d. 2019)
Saving infants and children

John B. Robbins was Chief of the Laboratory of Developmental and Molecular Immunity, National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development at the National Institutes of Health from 1983 until his retirement in 2012. He played a pivotal role in the development of Hib conjugate vaccine which is now used throughout the world. The use of this vaccine led to a dramatic decline in the number of infants and children suffering from meningitis and other systematic infections such as osteomyelitis and pneumonia. Dr. Robbins also played an important role in the development of vaccines for typhoid fever, pertussis and many others.

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2000 - Ciro A. de Quadros, M.D., M.P.H. (d. 2014)
A global vision

Ciro de Quadros, Director of International Programs, Sabin Vaccine Institute, and former Director of the Division of Vaccines and Immunization of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has devoted his entire career to infectious disease prevention. After receiving his Medical degree from the School of Medicine in Porto Alegre and Masters in Public Health degree from the National School of Public Health in Rio de Janeiro he became involved in the Smallpox Eradication Effort in Brazil. His assignment as Smallpox Surveillance Officer in 1969 took him from the Amazon to the State of Parana. When he left Parana smallpox in Parana was at "zero". As Field Operations Director in Ethiopia, he led efforts culminating in smallpox eradication in 1975 and certification two years later. In 1975 he joined PAHO as the first Director in the Americas where his many achievements include in 1985 launching the Expanded Program on Immunization and leading the PAHO team in the successful eradication of poliomyelitis from the Western Hemisphere in 1991.

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1999 - Maj. Gen. Philip K. Russell, M.D. (USA Ret.)
On the health battlefield

Philip Russell received his bachelor’s degree from Johns Hopkins University and his medical degree from the University of Rochester. He is Board certified in Internal Medicine and has authored and co-authored over 100 publications on Infectious Diseases. He is Professor Emeritus at Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Department of International Health. In 1990, Philip Russell served in the U.S. Army Medical Department where he pursued a career in Infectious Disease Research retiring as a major general. His military assignments included Director, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Commander, Fitzsimons Army Medical Center and Commander U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command. His military awards include the Legion of Merit and the Distinguished Service Medal. Academic appointments include Professor of Preventive Medicine at the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.

Dr. Russell is past president of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, and Fellow of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. He served as Special Advisor to the International Children’s Vaccine Initiative. He was member of the board of scientific Counselors of the National Center for Infectious Diseases and served on the Presidents Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments. He has served on numerous boards and advisory committees for national and international agencies and now serves on the board of directors of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative and the Albert B. Sabin Vaccine Institute. He is member of the strategic Advisory Committee of the Bill & Melinda Gates Children’s Vaccine Program and consultant at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. He is currently chair of the Malaria Vaccine Task Force of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

1998 - Allen C. Steere, M.D.
Lyme disease pioneer

Allen C. Steere is an exemplar of translational research. He discovered Lyme disease and conducted subsequent studies that paved the way for development of a vaccine to prevent the disease. Dr. Steere holds the Natalie V. Zucker & Milton O. Zucker Endowed Chair in Rheumatology and Immunology at Tufts University School of Medicine. He also is Chief of Rheumatology/Immunology at the New England Medical Center.

1998 - Myron M. Levine, M.D., D.T.P.H.
Mentor to the future

Myron Levine is a distinguished teacher and a mentor to young faculty members as Director of the Center for Vaccine Development at the University of Maryland School of Medicine. As Chairman of the Future Vaccine Subcommittee of the US National Vaccine Advisory Committee, he provides counsel to legislators on vaccine policy.

1997 - Maurice R. Hilleman, Ph.D. (d. 2005)
Dean of vaccines

Maurice R. Hilleman is Director of the Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research. He is credited with developing more vaccines than any other person in history. Dr. Hilleman pioneered the development of numerous live, killed, and combined vaccines including measles, mumps, rubella, Marek's disease, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, adenoviruses, and the commercial evolution of vaccines against meningococci and pneumococci.

1996 - Joseph L. Melnick, Ph.D., D.Sc. (d. 2001)
Teacher and leader

Joseph L. Melnick did groundbreaking work in polio research. As founding Chairman of the acclaimed Department of Virology and Epidemiology at Baylor College of Medicine, he trained more than 100 virologists at the Ph.D. or postdoctoral level, many of whom now are leading efforts to develop new vaccines and improve immunization.

1995 - Robert M. Chanock, M.D. (d. 2010)
The breath of life

Robert M. Chanock is Chief of the Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. He was the first to identify and characterize respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which each year contributes to the deaths of one million infants and children worldwide. Dr. Chanock began his career in Dr. Albert Sabin's laboratory at the University of Cincinnati.

1994 - Donald A. Henderson, M.D., M.P.H. (d. 2016)
Eradicating an ancient scourge

Donald A. Henderson directed the decade-long World Health Organization global campaign that eradicated smallpox. He oversaw more than 700 advisors from 69 countries, as well as 200,000 national health staff and volunteers. Dr. Henderson has served as the U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health in the Department of Health and Human Services and as a Presidential science advisor.